比尔老师:美国大学各专业的悲催指数

古人的高等教育本来是上层社会的专利。中国人苦读圣贤之书,古希腊人则一心一意钻研哲学。但是到了现代,高等教育早已从贵族府邸走入寻常人家之中。大学里的专业学习也追随社会各行各业,为老百姓的孩子培养谋生的才能。除去几百所仍然保留着贵族风范的文理学院之外,大多数美国大学的本科专业设置直接反应社会职场需求,经常达到上百种之多。民以食为生,对寻常百姓人家来说,付出高额大学学费之后,孩子总是要学到些安身立命的本事才对。然而不同大学专业的学术科技和职场含金量都有很大不同,有些专业可以在大学本科圆满学成,而另一些专业则需要在本科四年之后继续到研究生院深造若干年才终成正果。不同专业的毕业生在职场上的境遇也大不相同。如果一个大学专业需要学生攻读多年,学成后不仅求职难而且收入又低,那么修习这门专业的学生真的是非常悲惨了(家里有钱不用担心糊口的学生不在此列)

虽然几乎每个人都可以根据自身和亲朋好友的经历对各种大学专业的“钱途”有所印象,然而真正靠谱的答案只能从美国人口普查数据中得到。美国人口调查局(the U.SCensus Bureau)对美国人口进行连续社区抽样调查(American Community Survey),每年要向三百五十万家庭寄送问卷。采集项目当中包括问卷回答者大学毕业专业,各个专业毕业生当前平均收入和失业率,以及最高学历的大量数据(问卷回答者以大学毕业时的专业来分类,无论后来是否改行。硕博学位的专业并不见得与本科专业相同)。

美国人口调查局将大学专业分为162种。这样的分类与美国各大学的专业称谓和定义很可能不近相同,但是略加调整就可以发现最近似的专业名称。我根据美国全国各个专业毕业生当前平均收入,失业率,以及拥有最高学历的百分比构建了一个大学专业悲催指数(Lousy Index)。该指数由三个独立排名加合而来:第一个是按各个专业毕业生平均收入从低到高排名(收入越低排名越高,收入最低排名第一);第二个是按各个专业毕业生当前失业率从高到低排名(失业率越高求职越难排名越高,失业率最高排名第一);第三个是按各个专业毕业生拥有硕博学位的百分比从高到低排名(百分比越高越可能学得累排名越高, 百分比最高排名第一)。将这三个单项排名加合在一起得到悲催指数,得分最低的大学专业学得累并且工作难找收入又低,费力不讨好;而得分最高的大学专业学得轻松并且找工作容易收入也高,小日子乐陶陶。

下面表格是根据American Community Survey 2016年数据计算的悲催指数,由其他数据由bankrate.com整理而成。

 

Degree Lousy Index Average Income Unemploy-ment Higher Degree Holders
Educational Psychology 44 $54,097 6.30% 73%
.Clinical Psychology 48 $51,022 4.80% 74%
Counseling Psychology 82 $49,267 3.40% 79%
Library Science 92 $48,754 3.30% 65%
Linguistics and Comparative Language and Literature 92 $54,896 6.50% 46%
Miscellaneous Health Medical Professions 117 $51,901 3.80% 47%
Botany 124 $68,325 4.70% 56%
Anthropology and Archeology 129 $56,437 4.60% 43%
Nutrition Sciences 133 $55,740 4.00% 43%
Interdisciplinary and Multi-Disciplinary Studies (General) 137 $48,992 5.40% 28%
Composition and Speech 141 $44,211 4.90% 26%
Educational Administration and Supervision 143 $65,387 3.30% 90%
Humanities 144 $56,049 4.60% 37%
Drama and Theater Arts 144 $48,287 5.20% 26%
Miscellaneous Biology 147 $60,028 3.50% 51%
Community and Public Health 151 $56,158 4.00% 38%
Miscellaneous Fine Arts 159 $40,855 9.10% 13%
Human Services and Community Organization 160 $45,111 3.90% 26%
Social Work 161 $46,566 2.60% 48%
Intercultural and International Studies 161 $60,182 4.40% 39%
Visual and Performing Arts 162 $43,996 4.00% 23%
Art History and Criticism 163 $57,513 3.70% 41%
School Student Counseling 165 $50,771 2.00% 87%
Other Foreign Languages 167 $64,687 3.80% 46%
Music 168 $46,842 2.90% 43%
Communication Disorders Sciences and Services 169 $56,184 2.30% 75%
Language and Drama Education 170 $49,002 2.30% 53%
Philosophy and Religious Studies 172 $71,084 3.50% 56%
Public Administration 173 $73,945 3.90% 48%
Area, Ethnic, and Civilization Studies 174 $62,673 3.50% 47%
Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 174 $59,370 3.80% 38%
Miscellaneous Psychology 175 $74,911 3.70% 51%
English Language and Literature 175 $64,216 3.60% 46%
International Relations 176 $84,110 4.60% 50%
French, German, Latin and Other Common Foreign Language Studies 179 $61,650 3.10% 50%
Fine Arts 182 $49,059 3.90% 23%
Cosmetology Services and Culinary Arts 182 $42,362 4.70% 8%
Biomedical Engineering 183 $95,583 4.10% 57%
Psychology 183 $58,878 3.20% 46%
Film, Video and Photographic Arts 183 $49,990 5.90% 14%
Science and Computer Teacher Education 184 $59,455 2.50% 58%
Physiology 184 $82,881 3.70% 56%
Early Childhood Education 188 $39,941 2.70% 36%
Special Needs Education 189 $49,926 1.90% 58%
Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology 189 $67,527 3.60% 44%
Communication Technologies 189 $48,637 4.90% 11%
Ecology 190 $61,116 3.60% 38%
Environmental Science 192 $60,071 3.90% 31%
Studio Arts 193 $41,626 3.20% 27%
Teacher Education: Multiple Levels 194 $46,774 2.00% 49%
General Social Sciences 194 $58,526 3.70% 33%
Family and Consumer Sciences 195 $45,652 3.00% 31%
Industrial and Organizational Psychology 198 $75,412 4.10% 42%
Art and Music Education 199 $45,288 2.10% 46%
Mass Media 203 $52,446 4.30% 19%
Metallurgical Engineering 206 $124,448 5.00% 51%
Theology and Religious Vocations 208 $44,673 2.20% 42%
Commercial Art and Graphic Design 209 $51,510 4.40% 10%
Engineering Mechanics, Physics, and Science 210 $95,959 3.50% 62%
Microbiology 210 $93,726 3.40% 60%
Geosciences 212 $112,162 3.90% 59%
Secondary Teacher Education 212 $54,978 2.10% 49%
Food Science 213 $72,850 3.90% 36%
General Education 215 $50,556 2.00% 47%
Physical and Health Education Teaching 215 $54,947 2.60% 41%
Mathematics Teacher Education 218 $52,113 1.50% 52%
Liberal Arts 221 $57,695 3.40% 28%
Social Science or History Teacher Education 222 $56,136 2.10% 48%
Elementary Education 223 $45,414 1.60% 45%
Geography 223 $66,143 3.60% 34%
Sociology 224 $57,879 3.00% 35%
Health and Medical Administrative Services 228 $63,294 3.60% 28%
Miscellaneous Education 229 $55,363 2.20% 44%
Criminology 231 $57,154 3.50% 23%
Miscellaneous Social Sciences 232 $78,891 2.70% 56%
History 234 $76,215 2.90% 49%
Computer Information Management and Security 235 $68,494 5.00% 21%
Human Resources and Personnel Management 236 $69,186 3.60% 32%
Physical Fitness, Parks, Recreation, and Leisure 237 $50,915 2.80% 28%
Geology and Earth Science 238 $75,968 3.20% 44%
Political Science and Government 239 $88,346 3.20% 50%
Miscellaneous Business and Medical Administration 239 $72,168 5.20% 21%
Biological Engineering 241 $79,212 3.20% 45%
Aerospace Engineering 243 $105,536 3.40% 52%
Engineering and Industrial Management 245 $91,244 5.10% 30%
Chemistry 252 $102,338 2.90% 63%
Mathematics 252 $85,878 2.70% 52%
Architecture 253 $68,312 2.90% 38%
Miscellaneous Engineering Technologies 254 $74,874 5.30% 16%
Criminal Justice and Fire Protection 257 $57,741 3.20% 22%
Communications 258 $62,210 3.40% 23%
Animal Sciences 259 $59,517 2.40% 37%
Materials Science 263 $95,455 2.50% 61%
Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 263 $96,039 3.90% 36%
Biology 264 $94,999 2.50% 59%
Physics 267 $100,383 2.50% 67%
United States History 271 $70,151 2.10% 48%
Biochemical Sciences 273 $109,301 2.60% 65%
Business Economics 274 $93,627 3.80% 31%
Information Sciences 274 $81,466 3.80% 25%
Advertising and Public Relations 281 $62,512 3.30% 18%
Statistics and Decision Science 282 $86,439 2.40% 50%
Journalism 282 $64,418 3.00% 24%
Treatment Therapy Professions 284 $63,547 2.00% 43%
Pre-Law and Legal Studies 285 $69,531 2.60% 35%
Computer and Information Systems 285 $74,935 3.40% 25%
General Medical and Health Services 286 $60,534 2.00% 38%
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 289 $100,252 3.30% 41%
Health and Medical Preparatory Programs 290 $130,308 2.30% 78%
Neuroscience 291 $83,675 1.70% 57%
Petroleum Engineering 292 $153,743 7.90% 24%
Environmental Engineering 293 $84,207 2.50% 44%
Economics 293 $108,824 3.40% 42%
Medical Assisting Services 293 $57,002 2.00% 29%
Cognitive Science and Biopsychology 294 $81,334 2.00% 50%
Hospitality Management 295 $52,184 2.50% 13%
Business Management and Administration 296 $73,906 3.30% 23%
Chemical Engineering 297 $111,018 2.90% 48%
Industrial Production Technologies 297 $76,922 3.60% 21%
Molecular Biology 298 $105,849 2.10% 64%
Plant Science and Agronomy 302 $57,781 2.50% 21%
Oceanography 304 $67,294 0.70% 44%
Accounting 305 $82,134 3.10% 28%
Multi-disciplinary or General Science 307 $77,019 2.60% 35%
Genetics 308 $95,954 1.30% 64%
Computer Science 313 $94,204 3.10% 32%
Electrical and Mechanic Repairs and Technologies 313 $63,496 2.90% 12%
Electrical Engineering 314 $106,187 2.90% 43%
Natural Resources Management 316 $62,927 2.00% 30%
Engineering Technologies 316 $70,247 3.00% 20%
Materials Engineering and Materials Science 317 $83,987 2.20% 43%
General Engineering 317 $90,258 2.80% 35%
Public Policy 318 $97,721 1.90% 56%
Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Administration 320 $103,350 1.80% 57%
Zoology 323 $111,889 1.40% 68%
Forestry 327 $68,247 2.20% 28%
Medical Technologies Technicians 327 $65,303 2.40% 23%
Construction Services 328 $82,935 3.60% 9%
Mathematics and Computer Science 330 $93,961 2.40% 40%
Marketing and Marketing Research 330 $74,431 3.00% 16%
Applied Mathematics 332 $105,679 2.00% 51%
General Business 333 $79,960 2.90% 23%
General Agriculture 334 $58,516 1.20% 26%
Electrical Engineering Technology 337 $81,474 2.40% 29%
Computer Networking and Telecommunications 339 $72,341 2.60% 21%
International Business 340 $74,976 2.30% 28%
Operations, Logistics and E-Commerce 340 $75,409 2.70% 21%
Management Information Systems and Statistics 342 $86,221 2.90% 24%
Mechanical Engineering 347 $101,590 2.40% 39%
Computer Engineering 347 $99,587 2.50% 36%
Finance 352 $100,448 2.70% 30%
Nuclear Engineering 354 $108,591 1.80% 48%
Transportation Sciences and Technologies 361 $90,394 3.00% 19%
Civil Engineering 363 $96,405 2.20% 36%
Nursing 365 $68,892 1.60% 25%
Computer Programming and Data Processing 372 $61,495 1.40% 16%
Agricultural Economics 380 $84,356 0.40% 35%
Miscellaneous Engineering 381 $89,704 2.00% 29%
Architectural Engineering 383 $86,622 1.90% 29%
Agriculture Production and Management 385 $67,926 1.60% 16%
Actuarial Science 417 $108,658 2.30% 22%
Mechanical Engineering Related Technologies 420 $82,386 1.20% 20%

 

https://www.scribd.com/document/388081338/BANKRATE-Most-Valuable-College-Majors-Ranked

 

比尔老师是人大附中校友,1984年从北京大学生物系毕业,1989年来美后获埃默里大学MBA学位并从事大学管理工作多年,拥有强大中文和英文写作交谈能力,可以与学生用英语深度沟通并指导其文书写作。他根据学生的特点志向爱好制定个性化大学申请方案,指导的学生全部成功进入的美国著名大学及文理学院。如希望与比尔老师咨询有关美国名校升学,选校,或文书写作指导事宜,请长按下面二维码和比尔老师微信联系:

 

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