比尔老师:哪些大学专业特别需要读研

美国大学的本科专业设置非常广泛,经常达到上百种之多。这些专业涉及人类知识技能的方方面面,其毕业生遍布于社会各个角落。然而每个专业的学术和科技含金量都有很大不同,有些专业的研修可以在大学本科圆满完成,而另一些专业则需要在本科四年之后到研究生院进一步深造若干年才能终成正果。在大学教育费用高昂的今天,绝大多数学生都要在早工作实现经济自理与长期投资取得真经之间做出困难抉择。 无论是高中毕业准备大学申请的考生还是大学一二年级学生,在斟酌考虑专业方向的时候,常常希望了解这个非常重要的预期:哪些专业基本可以四年读完,哪些专业很可能需要进一步攻读研究生。

然而这类数据在美国各大学官方网站上却极端贫乏。真正的答案隐藏在美国人口普查数据之中。原来美国人口调查局(the U.S. Census Bureau)对美国人口进行连续社区抽样调查(American Community Survey),每年要向三百五十万家庭寄送问卷。采集项目当中包括问卷回答者大学毕业专业以及最高学历的大量数据。从这些数据我们可以估算出每个大学专业所有本科文凭得主中后来获得硕博学位的百分比(硕博学位的专业并不见得与本科专业相同)。根据这个百分比我们就可以比较可靠的预测一位大学本科生选取某个专业后,将来读研的可能性。换句话说,如果一个大学专业超过半数的得主将来获得硕博学位,那么读这个专业的学生就要做好将来读研的准备。反之,如果一个大学专业只有三分之一以下的得主将来获得硕博学位,那么这个专业大致可以在本科完成。

从这些数据我们还可以看出各个专业读研的有效程度。如果多数专业得主拥有硕博学位,那么读研就成了行业必须,没有什么神奇之处。然而要是只有很少数专业得主拥有硕博学位,那么读研就变成了在行业中领先的重要砝码。

美国人口调查局将大学专业分为162种。这样的分类与美国各大学的专业称谓和定义很可能不近相同,但是略加调整就可以发现最近似的专业名称。下面表格是根据American Community Survey 2016年数据,由bankrate.com整理而成。

 

Degree

Higher Degree Holders

Educational Administration and Supervision 90%
School Student Counseling 87%
Counseling Psychology 79%
Health and Medical Preparatory Programs 78%
Communication Disorders Sciences and Services 75%
Clinical Psychology 74%
Educational Psychology 73%
Zoology 68%
Physics 67%
Biochemical Sciences 65%
Library Science 65%
Molecular Biology 64%
Genetics 64%
Chemistry 63%
Engineering Mechanics, Physics, and Science 62%
Materials Science 61%
Microbiology 60%
Geosciences 59%
Biology 59%
Science and Computer Teacher Education 58%
Special Needs Education 58%
Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Administration 57%
Neuroscience 57%
Biomedical Engineering 57%
Public Policy 56%
Miscellaneous Social Sciences 56%
Physiology 56%
Philosophy and Religious Studies 56%
Botany 56%
Language and Drama Education 53%
Aerospace Engineering 52%
Mathematics 52%
Mathematics Teacher Education 52%
Applied Mathematics 51%
Metallurgical Engineering 51%
Miscellaneous Psychology 51%
Miscellaneous Biology 51%
Statistics and Decision Science 50%
Cognitive Science and Biopsychology 50%
Political Science and Government 50%
International Relations 50%
French, German, Latin and Other Common Foreign Language Studies 50%
History 49%
Secondary Teacher Education 49%
Teacher Education: Multiple Levels 49%
Nuclear Engineering 48%
Chemical Engineering 48%
United States History 48%
Public Administration 48%
Social Science or History Teacher Education 48%
Social Work 48%
Area, Ethnic, and Civilization Studies 47%
General Education 47%
Miscellaneous Health Medical Professions 47%
English Language and Literature 46%
Other Foreign Languages 46%
Psychology 46%
Art and Music Education 46%
Linguistics and Comparative Language and Literature 46%
Biological Engineering 45%
Elementary Education 45%
Environmental Engineering 44%
Oceanography 44%
Geology and Earth Science 44%
Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology 44%
Miscellaneous Education 44%
Electrical Engineering 43%
Materials Engineering and Materials Science 43%
Treatment Therapy Professions 43%
Anthropology and Archeology 43%
Nutrition Sciences 43%
Music 43%
Economics 42%
Industrial and Organizational Psychology 42%
Theology and Religious Vocations 42%
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering 41%
Physical and Health Education Teaching 41%
Art History and Criticism 41%
Mathematics and Computer Science 40%
Mechanical Engineering 39%
Intercultural and International Studies 39%
Architecture 38%
General Medical and Health Services 38%
Ecology 38%
Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 38%
Community and Public Health 38%
Animal Sciences 37%
Humanities 37%
Civil Engineering 36%
Computer Engineering 36%
Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 36%
Food Science 36%
Early Childhood Education 36%
Agricultural Economics 35%
General Engineering 35%
Multi-disciplinary or General Science 35%
Pre-Law and Legal Studies 35%
Sociology 35%
Geography 34%
General Social Sciences 33%
Computer Science 32%
Human Resources and Personnel Management 32%
Business Economics 31%
Environmental Science 31%
Family and Consumer Sciences 31%
Finance 30%
Engineering and Industrial Management 30%
Natural Resources Management 30%
Miscellaneous Engineering 29%
Architectural Engineering 29%
Electrical Engineering Technology 29%
Medical Assisting Services 29%
Accounting 28%
International Business 28%
Forestry 28%
Health and Medical Administrative Services 28%
Liberal Arts 28%
Physical Fitness, Parks, Recreation, and Leisure 28%
Interdisciplinary and Multi-Disciplinary Studies (General) 28%
Studio Arts 27%
Composition and Speech 26%
General Agriculture 26%
Drama and Theater Arts 26%
Human Services and Community Organization 26%
Nursing 25%
Information Sciences 25%
Computer and Information Systems 25%
Petroleum Engineering 24%
Management Information Systems and Statistics 24%
Journalism 24%
General Business 23%
Business Management and Administration 23%
Medical Technologies Technicians 23%
Communications 23%
Criminology 23%
Fine Arts 23%
Visual and Performing Arts 23%
Actuarial Science 22%
Criminal Justice and Fire Protection 22%
Operations, Logistics and E-Commerce 21%
Computer Networking and Telecommunications 21%
Industrial Production Technologies 21%
Miscellaneous Business and Medical Administration 21%
Computer Information Management and Security 21%
Plant Science and Agronomy 21%
Mechanical Engineering Related Technologies 20%
Engineering Technologies 20%
Transportation Sciences and Technologies 19%
Mass Media 19%
Advertising and Public Relations 18%
Agriculture Production and Management 16%
Marketing and Marketing Research 16%
Computer Programming and Data Processing 16%
Miscellaneous Engineering Technologies 16%
Film, Video and Photographic Arts 14%
Hospitality Management 13%
Miscellaneous Fine Arts 13%
Electrical and Mechanic Repairs and Technologies 12%
Communication Technologies 11%
Commercial Art and Graphic Design 10%
Construction Services 9%
Cosmetology Services and Culinary Arts 8%

 

https://www.scribd.com/document/388081338/BANKRATE-Most-Valuable-College-Majors-Ranked

 

比尔老师是人大附中校友,1984年从北京大学生物系毕业,1989年来美后获埃默里大学MBA学位并从事大学管理工作多年,拥有强大中文和英文写作交谈能力,可以与学生用英语深度沟通并指导其文书写作。他根据学生的特点志向爱好制定个性化大学申请方案,指导的学生全部成功进入的美国著名大学及文理学院。如希望与比尔老师咨询有关美国名校升学,选校,或文书写作指导事宜,请长按下面二维码和比尔老师微信联系:

 

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比尔老师谈留学

 

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